The energy system is changing rapidly from top-down centralized generation to a system marked by decentralization and an actively participating demand-side. The line between production and consumption blurs: prosumerism becomes a key concept. Simultaneously, the perception of energy changes from a product consumers buy per kwh to a service that provides users with the direct benefits of utility or comfort – a warm home, a lighted building.

Anything-as-a-service (XaaS) is the business model that enables companies to operationalize this trend. The X is a placeholder for the different services that can be offered in the form of this model. This report provides a study on emerging and market-proven services and X-as-a- Service business models in the building and energy sector. Our methodological framework combines desk research with surveys, semi-structured interviews, and feedback to effectively validate the insights gathered from business stakeholders.

The first part captures the context and state of the literature for XaaS. Besides the policy and the methodology, the main component of part 1 is a literature review on energy services. This encompasses case studies on best practices from different services offered across Europe. The second part is empirical. We conducted a survey and semi-structured interviews among companies practicing XaaS and captured their point of view on:

  1. Benefits and motivations
  2. Barriers to implementation
  3. Current performance of XaaS
  4. Risk perceptions
  5. Regulatory support.

Taken together, the two parts capture the status quo of the implementation of XaaS business models and provide insights on how to apply these findings to policy and business. You can find more by downloading the full study on this link or in the section Public deliverables.